Yes, as long as you qualify for the visa. Suppose, for example, that you were living in the US with your US citizen spouse, you were deported and your spouse divorced you. You could perhaps still apply for an employment-based visa, and you could re-enter the US if the visa was granted. Of course, if you were deported for criminal conduct, for example, you might experience practical difficulties in locating a cooperative employer in the US.
If you were originally ordered deported because US immigration authorities believed that your marriage was a sham that was entered into for the sole purpose of obtaining immigration benefits, and then you proceeded to marry another US citizen, you might find it very difficult (but not necessarily impossible) to convince the USCIS that your second marriage was not a sham as well.
Ultimately, it is possible that you may experience a net loss of immigration benefits. If you formerly held a green card, for example, you might find that after your I-212 waiver is granted, you only qualify for an H-1B visa, which is time-limited (it does not necessarily lead to permanent residence).
These ambiguities are all the more reason you should seek the assistance of an experienced immigration lawyer even after receiving an I-212 waiver. It is possible in many cases to restore an I-212 waiver recipient’s former immigration status. Some such people have even gone on to become US citizens.